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Prof. Dirk Verschuren

Dirk Verschuren

Research Professor
Limnology Unit, Department of Biology
Ghent University
K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35
B-9000 Gent

  +32 (0)9 264 5262

Expertise & Interests

Overview / specialty        Quaternary paleoclimatology of Africa; long-term dynamics (years to millennia) of aquatic communities and ecosystem function in African lakes, using biological, sedimentological and geochemical tracers extracted from high-resolution lake-sediment records.
PAGES interests        Aquatic Transitions, LandCover6k
Topics        Climate dynamics, Ecosystem processes, Human impacts & interactions, Interannual-decadal varaibility, Monsoon, Proxy development
Timescales        Anthropocene (last 100 years), Holocene, Last millennia, Last glacial cycle, Observational period
Regions        Africa
Archives        Documentary records, Instrumental records, Lake sediments
Sector        Academia / Education, Research
Discipline        (Paleo)climatology, (Paleo)ecology, (Paleo)limnology



Urban MA, Nelson DM, Street-Perrott FA, Verschuren D, Hu FS, 2015. A late-Quaternary perspective on atmospheric pCO2, climate, and fire as drivers of C4 grass abundance. Ecology 96, 642–653.

van Bree LGJ, Rijpstra I, Cocquyt C, Al-Dhabi,NA, Verschuren D, Sinninghe Damsté JS, de Leeuw JW, 2015. Origin and palaeoenvironmental significance of C25 and C27 n-alk-1-enes in a 25,000-year lake-sedimentary record from equatorial East Africa. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 145, 89-102.

Buckles LK, Weijers JWH, Verschuren D, Sinninghe Damsté JS, 2014. Sources of core and intact branched tetraether membrane lipids in the lacustrine environment: anatomy of Lake Challa and its catchment, equatorial East Africa. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 140, 106–126.

Colombaroli D., Ssemmanda I., Gelorini, V., Bessems, I., Verschuren D., 2014. Contrasting long-term records of biomass burning in wet and dry savannas of equatorial East Africa. Global Change Biology 20, 2903–2914.

Loomis SE, Russell JM, Eggermont H, Verschuren D, Sinninghe Damsté JS, 2014. Effects of temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations on branched GDGT distributions in East African lakes: implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Organic Geochemistry 66, 25–37.

Ssemmanda I, Gelorini V, Verschuren D, 2014. Sensitivity of East African savannah vegetation to historical moisture-balance variation. Clim. Past 10, 2067–2080.

Wolff C, Kristen-Jenny I, Schettler G, Plessen B, Meyer H, Dulski P, Naumann R, Brauer A, Verschuren D, Haug GH, 2014. Modern seasonality in Lake Challa (Kenya/Tanzania) and its sedimentary documentation in recent lake sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 59, 1621–1636.

Barker, P. A., Hurrell, E. R., Leng, M. J., Plessen, B., Wolff, C., Conley, D. J., Keppens, E., Milne, I., Cumming, B. F., Laird, K. R., Kendrick, C. P., Wynn, P. M., Verschuren, D., 2012. Carbon cycling within an East African lake revealed by the carbon isotope composition of diatom silica: a 25-ka record from Lake Challa, Mt. Kilimanjaro. Quat. Sci. Rev. 66, 55-63.

De Cort G, Bessems I, Keppens E, Mees F, Cumming B, Verschuren D, 2013. Late-Holocene and recent hydroclimatic variability in the central Kenya Rift Valley: the sediment record of hypersaline lakes Bogoria, Nakuru and Elementeita. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 388, 69-80.

Hubau W, Van den Bulcke J, Kitin P, Mees F, Baert G, Verschuren D, Nsenga L, Van Acker J, Beeckman H, 2013. Ancient charcoal as a natural archive for palaeofire regime and vegetation change in the Mayumbe, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Quaternary Research 80, 326–340.

Eggermont, H. and Verschuren, D., 2013. Chironomid records: Africa. Pp. 361-372 in S. Elias (ed.), The Encyclopaedia of Quaternary Sciences. Elsevier (2nd Edition).

Francus, F., von Suchodoletz, H., Dietze, M., Donner, R., Bouchard, F., Roy, A.J., Fagot, M., Verschuren, D.*, Kröpelin, S.*, 2013. Varved sediments of Lake Yoa (Ounianga Kebir, Chad) reveal progressive drying of the Sahara during the last 6100 years. Sedimentology 60, 911-934 (*: equal contribution).

Gelorini, V., Verschuren, D., 2013. Historical climate-human-ecosystem interaction in East Africa: a review. Afr. J. Ecol. 51, 409-421.

Nicholson SE, Nash DJ, Chase BM, Grab SW, Shanahan TM, Verschuren D, Asrat A, Lézine A-M, Umer, M, 2013. Temperature variability over Africa during the last 2000 years. The Holocene 23, 1085-1093.

PAGES-2k Network (78 authors, listed in alphabetical order), 2013. Continental-scale temperature variability during the past two millennia. Nature Geoscience 6, 339-346.

Verschuren, D., Olago, D. O., Rucina, S. M., Odhengo, P.O., 2013. DeepCHALLA: two glacial cycles of climate and ecosystem dynamics from equatorial East Africa. Scientific Drilling 15-3, 72-75.

Cumming, B.F., Laird, K.R., Fritz, S.C. and Verschuren, D., 2012. Tracking Holocene climatic change with aquatic biota preserved in lake sediments: case studies of commonly used numerical techniques. In H.J.B. Birks, A.F. Lotter, S. Juggins & J.P. Smol (eds.), Tracking environmental changes in lake sediments: Data handling and statistical techniques. Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research 5, Kluwer, Dordrecht.

De Laender F, Verschuren D, Bindler R, Thas O, Janssen CR, 2012. Biodiversity of freshwater diatom communities during 1000 years of metal mining, land use, and climate change in Central Sweden. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 9097–9105.

Gelorini, V., Ssemmanda, I., Verschuren, D., 2012. Validation of non-pollen palynomorphs as palaeo-environmental indicators in tropical Africa: contrasting ~200-yr palaeolimnological records of climate change and human impact. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 186, 90–101.

Gelorini, V., Verbeken, A., Lens, L., Eggermont, H., Odgaard, B. & Verschuren, D., 2012. Effects of land use on the fungal spore richness in small crater-lake basins of western Uganda. Fungal Diversity 55, 125-142.

Nelson, D. M.*, Verschuren, D.*, Urban, M. A., Hu, F.S., 2012. Long-term variability and rainfall control of savanna fire regimes in equatorial East Africa. Global Change Biology 18, 3160–3170 (*: equal contribution).

Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Ossebaar, J., Schouten, S., Verschuren, D., 2012. Distribution of tetraether lipids in the 25-kyr sedimentary record of Lake Challa: extracting reliable TEX86 and MBT/CBT palaeotemperatures from an equatorial African lake. Quat. Sci. Rev. 50, 43-53.

Van der Meeren, T., Mischke, S., Sunjidmaa, N., Herzschuh, U., Ito, E., Martens, K. & Verschuren, D., 2012. Subfossil ostracode assemblages from Mongolia - Quantifying response for paleolimnological applications. Ecological Indicators 14, 138-151.

Barker, P.A., Hurrell, E.R., Leng, M.J., Wolff, C, Cocquyt, C., Sloane, H.J. & Verschuren, D., 2011. Seasonality in equatorial climate over the last 25,000 years revealed by oxygen isotope records from Mount Kilimanjaro. Geology 39, 1111-1114.

Blaauw, M., van Geel, B., Kristen, I., Plessen, B., Lyaruu, A., Engstrom, D.R., van der Plicht, J. & Verschuren, D., 2011. High-resolution 14C dating of a 25,000 year lake-sediment record from equatorial East Africa. Quat. Sci. Rev. 30, 3043-3059.

Gelorini, V., Verbeken, A., van Geel, B., Cocquyt, C. & Verschuren, D., 2011. Modern non-pollen palynomorph (NPP) diversity in East African lake sediments. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 164, 143–173.

Hurrell, E. R., Barker, P. A., Leng, M. J., Vane, C. H., Wynn, P., Kendrick, C. P., Verschuren, D. & Street-Perrott, F. A., 2011. Developing a methodology for carbon isotope analysis of lacustrine diatoms. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 25, 1567-1574.

Mergeay, J., De Meester, L., Eggermont, H. & Verschuren, D., 2011. Priority effects and species sorting in a long paleo-ecological record of repeated community assembly through time. Ecology 92, 2267–2275.

Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Verschuren, D., Ossebaar, J., Blokker, B., van Houten, R., van der Meer, M.T.J., Plessen, B. & Schouten, S., 2011. A 25,000-year record of climate-induced changes in lowland vegetation of eastern equatorial Africa revealed by the stable carbon-isotopic composition of fossil plant leaf waxes. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 302, 236–246.

Tierney, J.E., Russell, J.M., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Huang, Y. & Verschuren, D., 2011. Late Quaternary behavior of the East African monsoon and the importance of the Congo Air Boundary. Quat. Sci. Rev. 30, 798-807.

Van Bocxlaer, B., Verschuren, D., Schettler, G. & Kröpelin, S., 2011. Modern and early Holocene mollusc fauna of the Ounianga lakes (northern Chad): implications for the palaeohydrology of the central Sahara. J. Quat. Sci. 26, 433–447.

Van der Meeren, T., Ito, E., Verschuren, D., Almendinger, J.E. & Martens, K., 2011. Valve chemistry of Limnocythere inopinata (Ostracoda) in a cold arid environment - Implications for paleolimnological interpretation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 306, 116-126.

van Geel, B., Gelorini, V., Lyaruu, A., Aptroot, A., Rucina, S.M., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. & Verschuren, D., 2011. Diversity and ecology of tropical African fungal spores from a 25,000-year paleoenvironmental record in southeastern Kenya. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 164, 174-190.

Wolff, C., Haug, G.H., Timmermann, A., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Brauer, A., Sigman, D.M., Cane, M.A. & Verschuren, D., 2011. Reduced interannual rainfall variability in East Africa during the last ice age. Science 333, 743-747.

Colombaroli, D., Verschuren, D. 2010. Tropical fire ecology across the African continent: A paleoecological perspective. PAGES News 18 (2), 65-67.

Eggermont, H., Heiri, O., Russell, J.M., Vuille, M., Audenaert, L. & Verschuren, D., 2010. Paleotemperature reconstruction in tropical Africa using fossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera). J. Paleolimnol. 43, 413-435.

Eggermont, H., Verschuren, D., Audenaert, L., Lens, L., Russell, J. M., Klaassen, G. & Heiri, O., 2010. Limnological and ecological sensitivity of Rwenzori mountain lakes to climate warming. Hydrobiologia 648, 123-142.

Moernaut, J., Verschuren, D., Charlet, F., Kristen, I., Fagot, M. & De Batist, M., 2010. The seismic-stratigraphic record of lake-level fluctuations in Lake Challa: hydrological stability and change in equatorial East-Africa over the last 140 kyr. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 290(1-2), 214-223.

Tierney, J.E., Russell, J.M., Eggermont, H., Hopmans, E.C., Verschuren, D. & Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2010. Environmental controls on branched tetraether lipid distributions in tropical East African lake sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4902–4918.

Van der Meeren, T., Verschuren, D., Ito, E. & Martens, K., 2010. Morphometric techniques allow environmental reconstructions from low-diversity continental ostracode assemblages. J. Paleolimnol. 44, 903-911.

Russell, J., Eggermont, H., Taylor, R. & Verschuren, D., 2009. Paleolimnological records of recent glacier recession in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda-D. R. Congo. J. Paleolimnol. 41, 253-271.

Russell, J.M., McCoy, S.J., Verschuren, D., Bessems, I. & Huang, Y., 2009. Human Impacts, climate change, and aquatic ecosystem response during the past 2,000 years at Lake Wandakara, Uganda. Quat. Res. 72, 315-324.

Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Ossebaar, J., Abbas, B., Schouten, S. & Verschuren, D., 2009. Fluxes and distribution of tetraether lipids in an equatorial African lake: Constraints on the application of the TEX86 palaeothermometer and BIT index in lacustrine settings. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 4232–4249.

Verschuren, D., Russell, J., 2009. Paleolimnology of African lakes: beyond the exploration phase. PAGES News 17(3), 112-114.

Verschuren, D., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Moernaut, J., Kristen, I., Blaauw, M., Fagot, M., Haug, G.H. & CHALLACEA project members, 2009. Half-precessional dynamics of monsoon rainfall near the East African equator. Nature 462, 637-641.

Bessems, I., Verschuren, D., Russell, J. M., Hus, J., Mees, F. & Cumming, B. F., 2008. Palaeolimnological evidence for widespread late-18th century drought across equatorial East Africa. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 259, 107-120.

Eggermont, H., Kennedy, D., Hasiotis, S.T., Verschuren, D. & Cohen, A.S., 2008. Distribution of larval Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) along a depth transect at Kigoma Bay, Lake Tanganyika (East Africa): implications for paleoecology and paleoclimatology. Afr. Entomol. 16, 162-184.

Eggermont, H., Verschuren, D., Fagot, M., Rumes, B., Van Bocxlaer, B. & Kröpelin, S., 2008. Aquatic community response to salinity increase in a groundwater-fed lake system during late-Holocene desiccation of the central Sahara desert. Quat. Sci. Rev. 27, 2411-2425.

Kröpelin, S., Verschuren, D., Lezine, A.M., Eggermont, H., Cocquyt, C., Francus, P., Cazet, J.P., Fagot, M., Rumes, B., Russell, J.M., Darius, F., Conley, D.J., Schuster, M., von Suchodoletz, H. & Engstrom, D.R., 2008. Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: The past 6000 years. Science 320, 765-768.

Kröpelin, S., Verschuren, D. & Lezine, A.-M., 2008. Response to Comment on "Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years”. Science 322 (5906), DOI: 10.1126/science.1163483.

Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Ossebaar, J., Schouten, S. & Verschuren, D., 2008. Altitudinal shifts in the distribution of branched tetraether lipids in soils from Mt. Kilimanjaro (Africa): Implications for the MBT/CBT continental palaeothermometer. Organ. Geochem. 39, 1072-1076.

Verschuren, D., Charman, D., 2008. Latitudinal linkages in late-Holocene moisture-balance variation. Pp. 189-231 in R.W.Battarbee et al. (eds.), Natural climate variability and global warming. Blackwell.

Amsinck, S. L., Jeppesen, E., Verschuren, D., 2007. Use of Cladoceran resting eggs to trace climate-driven and anthropogenic changes in aquatic ecosystems. Pp. 135-158 in V. Alekseev & B. deStasio (eds.), Strategies and Mechanisms of Diapause in Aquatic Invertebrates. Springer.

Eggermont, H., De Deyne, P. & Verschuren, D., 2007. Spatial variability of chironomid death assemblages in the surface sediments of a fluctuating tropical lake (Lake Naivasha, Kenya). J. Paleolimnol. 38(3), 309-328.

Eggermont, H., Russell, J. M., Schettler, G., Van Damme, K. & Verschuren, D., 2007. Physical and chemical limnology of alpine lakes and pools in the Rwenzori Mountains (Uganda-Congo). Hydrobiologia 592, 151-173.

Eggermont, H. & Verschuren, D., 2007. Taxonomy and diversity of Afroalpine Chironomidae (Insecta : Diptera) on Mount Kenya and the Rwenzori mountains, East Africa. J. Biogeogr. 34, 69-89.

Mergeay, J., Vanoverbeke, J., Verschuren, D. & De Meester, L., 2007. Extinction, recolonisation and the storage effect: dispersal through time in a planktonic crustacean. Ecology 88, 3032-3043.

Russell J.M., Eggermont, H. & Verschuren, D., 2007. Spatial complexity during the Little Ice Age in tropical East Africa: sedimentary records from contrasting crater lake basins in western Uganda. The Holocene 17: 183-193.

Ryner, M., Gasse, F. , Rumes, B. & Verschuren, D., 2007. Climatic and hydrological instability in semi-arid equatorial East Africa during the late Glacial to Holocene transition: a multi-proxy reconstruction of aquatic ecosystem response in northern Tanzania. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 253, 440-458.

Verschuren, D. & Eggermont, H., 2007. Sieve mesh size and quantitative chironomid paleoclimatology. J. Paleolimnol. 38(3), 329-345.

Mergeay, J., Declerck, S., Verschuren, D. and De Meester, L., 2006. Daphnia community analysis in shallow Kenyan lakes and ponds using dormant eggs in surface sediments. Freshw. Biol. 51, 399-411.

Verschuren, D., and Eggermont, H., 2006. Quaternary paleoecology of aquatic Diptera in tropical and southern Hemisphere regions, with special reference to the Chironomidae. Quat. Sci. Rev. 25, 1926-1947.

Eggermont, H., Heiri, O. M. and Verschuren, D., 2006. Subfossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) as quantitative indicators of past salinity variation in African lakes. Quat. Sci. Rev. 25, 1966-1994.

Mergeay, J., Verschuren, D. and De Meester, L., 2006. Invasion of an asexual American water flea clone throughout Africa and rapid displacement of a native sibling species. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 273, 2839-2844.

Eggermont, H., Verschuren, D. and Dumont, H. J., 2005. Taxonomic diversity and biogeography of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) in lakes of tropical West Africa, using sub-fossil remains extracted from surface sediments. J. Biogeogr. 32, 1-21.

Rumes B., Eggermont, H., and Verschuren, D., 2005. Subfossil representation of aquatic invertebrate communities in a salinity gradient of western Uganda crater lakes. Hydrobiologia 542, 297-314.

Cohen, A. S., Palacios-Fest, M. R., McGill, J., Swarzenski, P. W., Verschuren, D., Sinyinza, R., Songori, T., Kakagozo, B., Syampila, M., O'Reilly, C. and Alin, S. R., 2005. Paleolimnological investigations of anthropogenic environmental change in Lake Tanganyika: I. An introduction to the project. J. Paleolim. 34, 1-18.

Verschuren, D., 2004. Decadal to century-scale climate variability in tropical Africa during the past 2000 years. Pp. 139-158 in R. W. Battarbee, F. Gasse & C. Stickley (eds.), Past climate variability through Europe and Africa. Dev. Paleoenv. Res. 6, 139-158.

Verschuren, D., Briffa, K.R., Hoelzmann, P., Barber, K., Barker, P., Scott, L., Snowball, I., Roberts, C.N., Battarbee, R.W., 2004. Holocene climate variability through Europe and Africa: a Time Stream 1 synthesis. Pp. 567-582 in R. W. Battarbee, F. Gasse & C. Stickley (eds.), Past climate variability through Europe and Africa. Dev. Paleoenv. Res. 6, 567-582.

Verschuren, D., Cumming, B. F. and Laird, K. R., 2004. Quantitative reconstruction of past salinity variations in African lakes using fossil midges (Diptera: Chironomidae): assessment of inference models in space and time. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sc. 61, 986-998.

Mergeay, J., Verschuren, D., Van Kerckhoven, L. and De Meester, L., 2004. Two hundred years of a diverse Daphnia community in Lake Naivasha (Kenya): effects of natural and human-induced environmental changes. Freshw. Biol. 49, 998-1013.

Eggermont, H. and Verschuren, D., 2004. Subfossil Chironomidae from East Africa. 1. Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae. J. Paleolim. 32, 383-412.

Eggermont H. and Verschuren, D., 2004. Subfossil Chironomidae from East Africa. 2. Chironomini and Tanytarsini. J. Paleolim. 32, 413-455.

Lamb, H., Darbyshire, I. and Verschuren, D., 2003. Vegetation response to rainfall variation and human impact in central Kenya during the past 1100 years. The Holocene 13: 285-292.

Eggermont, H. and Verschuren, D., 2003. Impact of soil erosion in disturbed tributary drainages on the benthic invertebrate fauna of Lake Tanganyika. Biol. Cons. 113: 99-109.

Eggermont, H. and Verschuren, D., 2003. Subfossil Chironomidae from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. 1. Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae. J. Paleolim. 29: 31-48.

Eggermont, H. and Verschuren, D., 2003. Subfossil Chironomidae from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. 2. Chironominae (Chironomini and Tanytarsini). J. Paleolim. 29: 423-458.

Verschuren, D., 2003. Lake-based climate reconstruction in Africa: progress and challenges. Hydrobiologia 500: 315-330.

Verschuren, D., 2003. News & Views: The heat on Lake Tanganyika. Nature 424: 731-732.

Verschuren, D., Johnson, T. C., Kling, H. J., Edgington, D. N., Leavitt, P. R., Brown, E. T., Talbot, M. R. and Hecky, R. E., 2002. History and timing of human impact on Lake Victoria, East Africa. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 269: 289-294.

Legesse, D., Gasse, F., Radakovitch, O., Vallet-Coulomb, C., Bonnefille, R., Verschuren, D., Gibert, E. and Barker, P., 2002. Environmental changes in a tropical lake (Lake Abiyata, Ethiopia) during recent centuries. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 187: 233-258.

Verschuren, D., 2001. Reconstructing fluctuations of a shallow East African lake during the past 1800 years from sediment stratigraphy in a submerged crater basin. J. Paleolim. 25: 297-311.

Eggermont, H., Verschuren, D., 2000. Chironomidae as indicators of substrate quality in Lake Tanganyika: application potential in studies of climate history and human impact. IDEAL Bulletin 2000: 10-11.

Verschuren, D., 2000. Freeze coring soft sediments in tropical lakes. J. Paleolim. 24: 361-365.

Verschuren, D., Tibby, J., Sabbe, K. and Roberts, N., 2000. Effects of lake level, salinity and substrate on the invertebrate community of a fluctuating tropical lake. Ecology 81: 164-182.

Verschuren, D., Laird, K. R. and Cumming, B. F., 2000. Rainfall and drought in equatorial East Africa during the past 1100 years. Nature 403: 410-414.

Roberts, C. N. and Verschuren, D., 1999. Report of the PEPIII African Crater Lakes Workshop. PAGES News 7 (1), 14-15.

Verschuren, D., 1999. Sedimentation controls on the preservation and time resolution of sedimentary climate-proxy records from shallow fluctuating lakes. Quat. Sci. Rev. 18: 821-837.

Verschuren, D., 1999. Influence of depth and mixing regime on sedimentation in a fluctuating tropical soda lake. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 1103-1113.

Verschuren, D., Cocquyt, C., Tibby, J., Roberts, N. and Leavitt, P. R., 1999. Long-term dynamics of algal and invertebrate communities in a fluctuating tropical soda lake. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 1216-1231.

Verschuren, D., Tibby, J., Leavitt, P. R. and Roberts, C. N., 1999. The environmental history of a climate-sensitive lake in the former 'White Highlands' of central Kenya. Ambio 28: 494-501.

Verschuren, D. Edgington, D. N., Kling, H. J. and Johnson, T. C., 1998. Silica depletion in Lake Victoria: sedimentary signals at offshore stations. J. Great Lakes Res. 24: 118-130.

Verschuren, D. and Marnell, L. F., 1997. Fossil zooplankton and the historical status of westslope cutthroat trout in a subalpine headwater lake of Glacier National Park, Montana. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 126: 21-34.

Verschuren, D., 1997. Taxonomy and ecology of subfossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) from Rift Valley lakes in central Kenya. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 107: 467-512.

Verschuren, D., 1994. Sensitivity of tropical-African aquatic invertebrates to short-term trends in lake level and salinity: a paleolimnological test. J. Paleolim. 10: 253-263.

Verschuren, D., 1993. A lightweight extruder for accurate sectioning of soft-bottom lake sediment cores in the field. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38: 1796-1802.

Mees, F., Verschuren, D., Nijs, R. and Dumont, H. J., 1991. Holocene evolution of the crater lake at Malha, Northwest Sudan. J. Paleolim. 5: 227-253.